Kamis, 07 Maret 2013

PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL

International trade

International trade is a trade carried on by a resident of a country with the population of other countries on the basis of mutual agreement.
Residents can be referred antarperorangan (individual to individual), between the individual and the government of a country or a government with other governments. In many countries, international trade became one of the main factors to improve the GDP. Although international trade has been going on for thousands of years (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its impact on the interests of economic, social, political and newly perceived several decades. International trade also helped propel industrialization, transportation advances, globalization, and the presence of multinational companies.
Theory of International Trade
According to Amir MS, when compared to the implementation in domestic trade, international trade is very complicated and complex. The complexity is partly due to the political boundaries and the state which can inhibit trade, such as the duties, tariffs or quotas imported goods.
In addition, other difficulties arise due to differences in cultures, languages, currencies, estimates and scales, and the law in the trade.

Model Adam Smith

Adam Smith's model focuses on the absolute advantage states that a country will gain an absolute advantage because the country is able to produce goods at a lower cost than other countries. According to this theory if the price of the goods with the same type do not have differences in many countries there is no reason to do international trade.

Ricardian Model

Ricardian model focuses on comparative advantage and perhaps the most important concept in international trade theory. In a Ricardian models, countries specialize in producing what they are best production. Unlike other models, this model predicts the framework in which countries will be fully specialists than producing various commodities. Also, the model does not directly incorporate Ricardian supporting factors, such as the relative amounts of labor and capital in the country.

Heckscher-Ohlin model

Heckscgher-Ohlin model created as an alternative to the Ricardian model of comparative advantage and the foundation. Putting aside the complexity that is much more complicated model does not prove more accurate predictions. However, from a theoretical point of view the model does not provide an elegant solution using neoclassical price mechanism into international trade theory.
Theory argues that the pattern of international trade is determined by differences in factors. It predicts that countries will export goods that make intensive use of factors fulfillment needs and will import goods that will be used locally scarce factors intensively. Ho empirical problems with this model, known as Pradoks Leotief, which opened in empirical tests by Wassily Leontief who found that the United States are more likely to export labor-intensive goods than has sufficient capital and so on.

Specific Factors

In this model, labor mobility between industry and the other one is probably when capital is immobile between industries in the short term. Specific factors refer to the specific provision that the short-term factors of production, such as physical capital, not easily transferred between industries. Theory mensugestikan if there is an increase in the price of an item, the owner of the production factors specific to the item will be for the actual term. Additionally, owners of opposing specific factors of production (such as labor and capital) are likely to have contradictory agendas when lobbying for controls over immigration of labor. Opposite relationship, both owners and workers benefit for investors in fact form an increase in capital compliance. This model is ideal for particular industries. This model is suitable for understanding income distribution but not to determine the pattern of trade.

Gravity Model

Gravity model of trade presents a more empirical analysis of trading patterns rather than the more theoretical models above. Gravity model, in its basic form, guess the trade based on the distance between countries and the interaction between countries in the size of its economy. This model mimics Newton's law of gravity which also takes into account the physical size and distance between the two objects. This model has proven to be robust empirically by econometric analysis. Other factors such as income level, diplomatic relations and trade policies are also included in a larger version of this model.

The benefits of international trade

According Sadono Sukirno, the benefits of international trade are as follows.
• Establish Friendship between Nations
• Getting the goods can not be produced in their own country
Many factors affect the yield differences in each country. These factors include: condition of geography, climate, the level of mastery of science and technology and others. With the international trade, each country is able to meet the needs that are not domestically produced.
• Gain the benefits of specialization
The main reason is the foreign trade activities for the benefit realized by specialization. Although a country can produce a product of the same kind as those produced by other countries, but they can sometimes be better if the country is importing goods from abroad.
• Expand markets and increase profits
Sometimes, employers do not run the machines (means of production) to the maximum because they fear an excess of production, resulting in falling prices of their products. With the international trade, employers can run the engines to the maximum, and sell the excess product out of the country.
• Transfer of modern technology
Foreign trade allows a country to learn more efficient production techniques and management methods are more modern.
Factors driving
Many of the factors that drive a country's international trade, including the following:
• Natural Factors / Potential Natural
• To meet the needs of domestic goods and services
• The desire to benefit and increase state revenues
• The difference in the ability of science and technology in the process of economic resources
• The excess of domestic products that need new markets to sell products.
• The difference in circumstances such as natural resources, climate, labor, culture, and the number of people that cause the difference in yield and production limitations.
• The existence of a good taste in common.
• The desire to open cooperation, political relations and support from other countries.
• The occurrence of an era of globalization so that no one country in the world can live alone.
International trade is not only beneficial in the economic sector. Manfaatnyadi other areas in the age of globalization is also increasingly felt. Fields that include political, social, and defense and security. In the field of economics, international trade for all countries memenuhikebutuhan people. The state can be likened to humans, no human being bisahidup own, without the help of others. So is the state, no state yangbisa survive without cooperation with other countries. Countries that used to shut down the international dariperdagangan, now has opened its markets. For example, Russia, China, danVietnam. International trade also has a social function. For example, when prices are very high bahanpangan world. Rice producing countries are trying to dapatmengekspornya. In addition to profit, export here also serves secarasosial. If the world food crisis occurs, it could result in an economic crisis. Akibatberantainya to hit to all countries. In the era of globalization, many emerging multinational companies. Sepertiini company owned by several people from several countries. For example, stock telkomseldimiliki by some people from Indonesia and Singapore. Sepertiini multi-national companies can strengthen social ties between nations. Inside many of berbagainegara work together. Then there was a friendship between them. International trade is also useful in politics. Trade between negarabisa strengthen political relations between countries. Instead, political relations also bisamempererat trade relations. International trade also serves to defense and security. For example, suatunegara nonnuklir want to develop nuclear weapons. The country can be suppressed dengandikenai economic sanctions. This means that other countries are not allowed to engage dagangdengan country. Usually such efforts must be authorized by the UN. It inidilakukan for the creation of security. International trade is also associated with the defense of a country. Each negaratentu need weapons to defend its territory. In fact, not all negaramampu produce weapons. It is necessary to import weapons. To prevent trafficking in dangerous goods, required international cooperation. Dangerous goods such as illicit arms, drugs obatanterlarang, endangered animals, animals that carry diseases, and so on. For kepentinganinilah governments all countries have customs. Pemerintahsuatu state agency was formed to inspect the goods and luggage when entering a negara.Pemeriksaan is needed to see if the tax had been paid. Examination jugauntuk check the goods for contraband or prohibited items or do not. Methods used in the examination among others by looking at the document items, using a detector of dangerous goods, or use sniffer dogs.

Rule / Regulation of International Trade

Trade generally regulated through bilateral agreements between the two countries. For centuries under the belief in mercantilism most nations had high tariffs and many restrictions on international trade. in the 19th century, especially in Britain, there is a belief in free trade became paramount and this view antaranegara dominated western thinking for some time since it was where it took them to Britain a major setback. In the years since the Second World War, controversial multilateral treaties like GATT WTO dab gives lobal attempt to regulate international trade. The trade agreements are sometimes led to protests and dissatisfaction with claims of unfair trade that is not mutually beneficial.
Free trade is usually most strongly supported by the strong state of economy, even though they sometimes do selective protection for industries of strategic importance such as tariff protection for agriculture by the United States and Europe. Netherlands and the United Kingdom are both fully support free trade where they are economically dominant, today the United States, Britain, Australia and Japan are the biggest supporters. However, many other countries (such as India, Russia, and China) as a supporter of free trade has become economically strong. Since the tariff rate down there is also a willingness to negotiate non tariff businesses, including foreign direct investment, procurement, and trade facilitation. Another form of trade transaction costs associated circuitry meetings and customs procedures.
Generally, agricultural interests are usually in the corridors of free trade and manufacturing sectors often support protectionism. This has changed in recent years, however. In fact, the agricultural lobby, especially in the United States, Europe and Japan, are primarily responsible for particular rules in the major international treaties that allow more protection in agriculture than most other goods and services.
During recess there is often domestic pressure to increase tariffs in order to protect a domestic industry. It happens all over the world during the Great Depression made the collapse of world trade is believed to deepen the depression.
Regulation of international trade settled through the World Trade Organization at the global level, and through several regional agreements such as Mercosur in South America, NAFTA between the United States, Canada and Mexico, and 27 countries of the European Union anatara independent. Buenos Aires meeting in 2005 to talk about creation of the Free Trade Area of ​​America (FTAA) failed miserably due to the refusal of the population of Latin American countries. Similar agreements such as the MAI (Multilateral Agreement on Investment) also failed in recent years




SOURCE: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perdagangan_internasional # Teori_Perdagangan_Internasional

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